Chandrayaan-3 is the next mission to be conducted by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). Chandrayaan-3 will prove to be a follow-up mission to Chandrayaan-2. Its objective is to land a lander and a rover on the Moon’s south pole, near the high mountains. The mission will demonstrate the capability of landing and maneuvering on the lunar surface. Chandrayaan-3 will be launched from the Satish Dhawan Space Center in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh in July using the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III (GSLV-Mk III).installed at the Satish Dhawan Space Center in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh, to launch Chandrayaan-3, also known as Launch Vehicle Mark III (LVM3),
What is the purpose of Chandrayaan-3?
ISRO has set three main objectives for the Chandrayaan-3 mission, which include
1 Getting a lander safe and soft landing on the surface of the Moon.
2 Observing and demonstrating the rover’s loitering capabilities on the Moon
3 In-situ scientific observation means making scientific experiments on the chemical and natural elements, soil, water, etc. available on the surface of the Moon to better understand and practice the composition of the Moon. Interplanetary refers to the development and demonstration of new technologies required for missions between two planets.
What is the total weight of Chandrayaan-3
The total weight of Chandrayaan-3 is 3,900 kg which will include a lander, a rover and a propulsion module, of which the propulsion module alone weighs 2,148 kg, which will put the lander and rover in a 100 kilometer orbit around the Moon. . The lander module weighing 1,752 kg houses the lander and the rover. The weight of the rover is 26 kg.
How much was spent in Chandrayaan-3?
The total cost to ISRO to launch the Chandrayaan-3 mission is Rs 600 crores. Although this is not the highest cost incurred by ISRO for its earlier missions, as the Chandrayaan-2 mission cost more than Rs 960 crore.
Features and facts of Chandrayaan-3 mission
- A rover and a lander will be on board as soon as Chandrayaan-3 is launched into space. And it will not have an orbiter like the previous Chandrayaan-2 mission.
- ISRO wants to see the unseen surface of the Moon, especially the regions of the Moon that have not seen sunlight in a few billion years. Scientists and astronomers hypothesize that ice, water and rich minerals and elements may be stored in these deep regions of the uncharted surface of the Moon.
- The rover of this spacecraft will communicate with Earth through the rescued orbiter despite the crash of Chandrayaan-3 in 2019.
- At a distance of 100 km from the lunar orbit, it will take high resolution pictures of the surface through a special camera to analyze it.
- The special thing is that this rover will be similar to the Vikram rover of 2019’s Chandrayaan-2, but this time it will have more improvements to help ensure a safe landing using modern technology.
- This propulsion module will generate 758 watts of power, and the lander module 738 watts and the rover 50 watts.
What are the major parts of Chandrayaan-3 ?
1 Propulsion Module (PM) -(Propulsion module -PM)
2 Indigenous Lander Module (LM)-(Lander module -LM)
The main objective of all three (Interplanetary missions) is to develop and demonstrate the necessary new technologies to be used in future missions between 2 planets.
Propulsion Module (PM)
The Propulsion Module (PM) in Chandrayaan-3 is an important component that will be used to take the Moon mission to high altitude. Inside the Propulsion Module are specialized instruments to study spectral and polar metric measurements of Earth from lunar orbit.
Design: The propulsion module will have a box-like structure with a large solar panel on each side and a large cylinder on top. This cylinder, called the Intermodule Adapter Cone, will act as a mounting for the lander. At the bottom of the propulsion module, the main thruster nozzle is located.
Lander Module Reach: This propulsion module will take the lander and rover to the 100 km lunar orbit. After separation, the propulsion module will continue to communicate in orbit around the Moon, and will act as a communications relay satellite
Communication Satellite: After the orbiting module orbits the Moon, Chandrayaan-3 will play the role of a communication satellite. It will establish communication between Chandrayaan-3 and other satellites.
Power Output: The Flow module will output 758 watts of power.
Course of Experiments: Inside the flow module will be the instruments used to conduct the scientific experiments. This will ensure operability of experiments and simplify the development and demonstration of new technologies for space missions.
Indigenous Lander Module (LM)
The lander module is a critical component in Chandrayaan-3 which will perform the task of safely landing on the lunar surface. The lander will take the module towards the moon in the last 100 km circular shape. After this, the propulsion module and the lander module will separate.
Design: The lander module is a box shape in which the rover of Chandrayaan-3 is organically installed. It consists of a large solar panel and a large cylinder on top. In Chandrayaan-3, the lander has been designed to soft land at a specified location on the Moon and provide the rover with the facility to perform expert chemical analysis of the Moon. Important changes have been made in Chandrayaan-3 after the technical glitch in the landing of Chandrayaan-2 regarding the lander module.
Safe Landing: The lander module is designed to make a soft and precise landing on the lunar surface at the specified location in a safe manner. It has four landing legs, four landing thrusters, several sensors to ensure a safe touchdown, and a suite of cameras to avoid hazards.
Connectivity: The lander is also equipped with an X band antenna which will ensure communication. Through this, communication will be established between Chandrayaan-3 and other satellites.
Control of experiments: The lander module will be equipped with the necessary instruments to conduct scientific experiments. It is designed to better navigate which. The purpose of which is to analyze and study the natural chemistry of the lunar surface. The propulsion module will propel the lander module into the final circular orbit of 100 km. After reaching this orbit, the lander module and the propulsion module will separate on their own.
The rover of Chandrayaan-3 is an important component of the mission organized by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). The rover plays an important role in exploring the lunar surface and conducting scientific experiments.
Design: The rover is rectangular in shape and has six wheels and a navigation camera. It is equipped with 6 wheels for mobility on the lunar surface. The rover is equipped with two payloads, which are the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) and the Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS). It is an improved version of the rover known as Vikram rover used in the previous Chandrayaan-2 mission.
Landing and Maneuverability: The rover has been specifically designed to make a safe landing on the lunar surface. It consists of landing thrusters and a number of sensors organized to ensure a safe landing.
Scientific Experiments: The rover has its own payloads for scientific experiments. APXS will help determine the elemental composition of the lunar soil and surrounding rocks. With the help of these experiments, the thermal properties of the lunar surface, seismic activity, plasma density, and imaging of the Moon are investigated.
Navigation and communication: The rover has a navigation camera which helps in ensuring mobility. In addition, the rover also carries an X band antenna for communication.
Chandrayaan-3 Lander payloads
The lander of Chandrayaan-3 will be equipped with five payloads.
1 Chandra Surface Thermophysical Experiment (ChaSTE)
ChasTE will measure thermal properties such as temperature and thermal circulation near the Moon’s south pole; ILSA will measure seismicity around the landing site and describe the composition of the lunar plateau and mantle; LP will estimate the plasma density; And the LRA, a NASA spacecraft, is a passive experiment that will help understand the dynamics of the Moon.
2 Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity (ILSA)-
ILSA will drill the seismicity zone around the landing site.
3 Langmuir Probe (LP)
This instrument will estimate the plasma density and its variations
4 NASA’s Laser Retroreflector Array (LRA)
An LRA – Laser Retroreflector Array (LRA) from NASA for lunar laser ranging studies will be sent to the moon through Chandrayaan-3. LRA, a NASA spacecraft, will help understand how the Moon’s light is reflected back to Earth
5 Radio Anatomy of the Moon Bound Hypersensitive Ionosphere and Atmosphere (RAMBHA).
RAMBHA is designed for radio science and will conduct an in-depth scientific investigation of the lunar subsurface structures.
chandrayaan-3 When will Chandrayaan-3 be launched? chandrayaan-3 launch date
Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) chairman S. Somnath said on 22 March that Chandrayaan-3, India’s third lunar mission, would probably be launched by mid-July.
Chandrayaan-3 Mission Duration:
The mission duration of the lander module will be one lunar day, which is approximately equal to 14 Earth days.
What is GSLV-Mk III?
The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark-III, developed by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), at the Satish Dhawan Space Center in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh, is a three-stage vehicle designed to launch communication satellites into geostationary orbit.
Its weight is 640 tones which is capable of carrying 8,000 kg payload to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and 4000 kg payload to GTO (Geo-Synchronous Transfer Orbit).
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Chandrayaan-3 aims to obtain new insights into the depth of science on the surface of the Moon and enhance India’s reputation in the space research sector. In addition, this mission will develop new technologies and develop experience and skills for interplanetary missions.